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  2. page home edited Reading Music the Wiki Way Unit One - Music Reading BasicsUnit One - Music Reading Basics Unit…

    Reading Music the Wiki Way
    Unit One - Music Reading BasicsUnit One - Music Reading Basics
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--1. What is a Staff?1. What is a Staff?
    answer: A staff is a series of 5 equally spaced horizontal lines on which music is written.
    EXAMPLE:
    {images.jpg} images.jpg
    Both the lines
    Audio Books
    Understanding
    and Crafting the spaces between the lines are used to place notes.
    This is what the lines and spaces look like with notes on them.
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Bass_Clef_Notes_1.JPG} http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Bass_Clef_Notes_1.JPG
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Bass_Clef_Notes_1.JPG
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--2. What is the musical alphabet?2. What is the musical alphabet?
    answer: In music, the notes are named after the letters of the alphabet.
    However, there are 26 alphabet letters, and in music there are only seven different basic notes to which we refer; therefore, music only uses the first 7 letters of the alphabet:
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G.
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--3. What is the Treble Clef?3. What is the Treble Clef?
    answer:
    Mix: The Treble Clef is a musical symbol used to indicate where G above Middle C is located.
    The rest
    Art of the notes on the staff are laid out around that G. Sometimes the Treble Clef is called the "G Clef."
    EXAMPLES:
    {treble_clef_image.png} treble_clef_image.png
    {Fig_1-2_Treble_staff.jpg} Fig_1-2_Treble_staff.jpg
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--4. What is the Bass Clef?4. What is the Bass Clef?
    answer: The Bass Clef is a musical symbol used to indicate where F below Middle C is located.
    The rest of the notes on the staff are laid out around that F. Sometimes the Bass Clef is called the "F Clef."
    EXAMPLE:
    {Bass_Clef_image.png} Bass_Clef_image.png
    Can you imagine how this fancy Bass clef below is also a fancy F?
    That is how it originated. Musicians wanted to indicate where F was on the staff, so they used a fancy letter with the dots surrounding the F line.
    {http://farm1.static.flickr.com/64/194869462_0df5de735e.jpg?v=0} http://farm1.static.flickr.com/64/194869462_0df5de735e.jpg?v=0
    http://farm1.static.flickr.com/64/194869462_0df5de735e.jpg?v=0
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--5. What are a barline and a measure?5. What are a barline and a measure?
    answer: A barline is a single line used to divide music into equally-timed spaces.
    A measure is the space between two barlines.
    There is always a barline at the end of a line of music.
    At the end of the complete piece of music, there is a double barline
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://www.igdb.co.uk/pages/music-theory-lessons/images/bar-lines-measures.png} external image bar-lines-measures.png
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your first test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 1 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 1 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 2.*It is time to take your first test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 1 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 1 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 2.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and SpacesUnit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--1. The Musical Alphabet (REVIEW):1. The Musical Alphabet (REVIEW):
    Each line and space on the staff is assigned a specific letter from the musical alphabet.
    The musical alphabet is easy to remember, because it is the first seven letters of the regular alphabet.
    The Musical Alphabet is: A B C D E F G
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--2. Treble Clef lines:2. Treble Clef lines:
    {egbdf1.jpg} egbdf1.jpg
    One way to remember the Treble Clef lines is to memorize a sentence.
    The line notes from bottom to top of the Treble Clef are: E G B D F
    The sentence can help you remember these line names. Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
    Other sentences may be used, too.
    Maybe you can come up with a sentence that will help you remember the lines of the Treble Clef.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--3. Treble Clef Spaces3. Treble Clef Spaces
    {face-1.jpg} face-1.jpg
    The spaces of the Treble Clef Staff are the letters in between the lines: (E) F (G) A (B) C (D) E (F)
    Listed alone, these note names are: F A C E
    They are easy to remember, because they spell a word: face
    Face also rhymes with "space" and that is where these notes are found, in the spaces.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--4. Bass Clef Lines:4. Bass Clef Lines:
    {bass_clef_LETTERS_lines.jpg} bass_clef_LETTERS_lines.jpg
    The line notes from bottom to top of the bass clef are: G B D F A.
    A sentence that will help you remember these notes is: Great Big Dogs Fight Alligators
    Again, other sentences may be used.
    Feel free to come up with one that will help you remember the lines of the Bass Clef.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--5. Bass Clef Spaces:5. Bass Clef Spaces:
    {bass_clef_SPACES_LETTERS.jpg} bass_clef_SPACES_LETTERS.jpg
    The spaces names are the letters between the line names: (G) A (B) C (D) E (F) G (A)
    Listed alone, these letter names are: A C E G
    A sentence that will help you remember the spaces of the Bass Clef Staff is: All Cows Eat Grass
    Again, other sentences may be used.
    Feel free to come up with one that will help you remember the spaces of the Bass Clef.
    6. When both the Treble and Bass Staves are put together, they form the Grand Staff.
    There are three notes between them: B, C, and D.
    The C between the staves is Middle C.
    Middle C is placed on an invisible line.
    Only a small piece of this line is shown. This small piece of line is called a ledger line.
    It is in the middle of the treble and bass staves and it is the C closest to the middle of the piano.
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://www.essential-music-theory.com/images/grand-staff-lines-with-middle-c.jpg} http://www.essential-music-theory.com/images/grand-staff-lines-with-middle-c.jpg
    http://www.essential-music-theory.com/images/grand-staff-lines-with-middle-c.jpg
    The note just above Middle C (in a space) is "D."
    The note just below Middle C (also in a space) is "B."
    EXAMPLE:
    {grandStaffwithnotenames.gif} grandStaffwithnotenames.gif
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 2 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 2 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 3.*It is time to take your test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 2 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 2 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 3.
    Unit Three - Note NamesUnit Three - Note Names
    Unit Three - Note Names--1. Overview of notes - What is a Rhythm Tree?1. Overview of notes - What is a Rhythm Tree?
    answer: A Rhythm Tree shows how different kinds of notes are related to each other.
    EXAMPLE:
    {notetree.jpg} notetree.jpg
    Of the notes above, the sixteenth notes last the shortest time, and take the most to fill up a measure of time.
    It takes two sixteenth notes to equal 1 eighth note.
    It takes two eighth notes to equal 1 quarter note.
    It takes two quarter notes to equal 1 half note.
    It takes two half notes to equal 1 whole note.
    One whole note usually fills up a whole measure
    Recording by itself.
    Unit Three
    William Moylan
    Glen Ballou
    - Note Names--2. What is a Whole Note?2. What is a Whole Note?
    answer: A Whole Note is a musical symbol looking like an oval. It can be placed on a line or a space of the staff.
    It usually represents 4 beats, or all of the beats in a measure of time.
    EXAMPLE:
    {whole_note.jpg} whole_note.jpg
    Unit Three
    Sams - Note Names--3. What is a Half Note?3. What is a Half Note?
    answer: A Half Note is a musical symbol looking like a oval with a stem attached.
    The stem can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    It can be placed on a line or in a space.
    It usually represents 2 beats, or half of the beats in a whole note.
    EXAMPLE:
    {0808-0801-1115-3534.jpg} 0808-0801-1115-3534.jpg
    Unit Three - Note Names--4.What is a Quarter note?4.What is a Quarter note?
    answer: A Quarter Note looks like a half note, but the note head has been filled in.
    The stem can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    It also can be placed on a line or in a space.
    A Quarter Note usually represents one beat, or one quarter of a Whole Note.
    EXAMPLE:
    {quarternote.gif} quarternote.gif
    Unit Three - Note Names--5. What is an Eighth Note?5. What is an Eighth Note?
    answer: An Eighth Note looks like a Quarter Note, but has a flag added to the end of the stem.
    When two or more Eighth Notes are used next to each other, the flags can be connected.
    The stems can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    Remember, when two Eighth Notes are connected with a beam, each note head represents one Eighth Note.
    An Eighth Note represents 1/2 a beat, or 1/8th of a whole note.
    EXAMPLES:
    One Eighth note (1/2 a beat): {0808-0710-3112-3855.jpg} 0808-0710-3112-3855.jpg Two Eighth Notes (each 1/2 a beat): {beam1.gif} beam1.gif
    Unit Three - Note Names--6. What is a Sixteenth Note?6. What is a Sixteenth Note?
    Answer: A Sixteenth Note looks like a Eighth Note, but has a double flag added to the end of the stem.
    When two or more Sixteenth Notes are used next to each other, the flags can be connected.
    The stems can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    Remember, when two Sixteenth Notes are connected with a beam, each note head represents one Sixteenth Note.
    Sixteenth Note represents 1/4 of a beat, or 1/16th of a whole note.
    EXAMPLES:
    Two single Sixteenth Notes (each is worth 1/4 of a beat):
    {Sixteenth-notes.jpg} Sixteenth-notes.jpg
    Two Sixteenth Notes, connected with a beam, (each note head is worth 1/4 of a beat):
    {beam2.gif} beam2.gif
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your next test. See Mrs. Geluso
    Handbook for the UNIT 3 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 3 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 4.*It is time to take your next test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 3 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 3 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 4.
    Unit Four
    Sound Engineers - Rest NamesUnit Four - Rest Names
    Unit Four - Rest Names--1. What is a Rest?1. What is a Rest?
    answer: A Rest is a symbol that represents silence in music.
    There is a rest to match each kind of note.
    Here is a chart that shows what each kind of rest looks like and lines each one up with it's matching note.
    {Srm0023.GIF} Srm0023.GIF
    Unit Four - Rest Names--2. Whole Rest2. Whole Rest
    A Whole rest looks like a small rectangle hanging from the bottom of the fourth line of the staff.
    One way to remember what its name is, is to imagine a stick man walking across the line the rest is hanging from.
    He would fall into the "hole" (whole) if he kept going.
    Also, the Whole Note represents the most beats of silence (4 beats), so perhaps it is "too heavy" to stay on top of the line, fell off, and is barely hanging on from beneath.
    EXAMPLE:
    {WholeRest.gif} WholeRest.gif
    3. Half Rest A Half Rest also looks like a small rectangle, but it is sitting on top of the third line of the staff.
    If a stick man were to walk across this line he would "half to" (have to) step over the rest.
    Perhaps this will help you remember that it is a "half-rest."
    Also, it only represents two beats of silence, so it is "lighter" than the Whole Rest, and therefore has no problem staying on top of its line.
    EXAMPLE:
    {HalfRest.gif} HalfRest.gif
    4. Quarter Rest
    The Quarter Rest represents 1 beat of silence.
    It may be hard to draw. An easy way to draw it is to draw a Z and then add a C below it.
    EXAMPLE:
    {QuarterRest.gif} QuarterRest.gif
    Unit Four
    New Audio Cyclopedia - Rest Names--5. Eighth Rest5. Eighth Rest
    An Eighth Rest looks like a number seven (7) with a big dot on its "nose."
    It represents 1/2
    2nd_edition
    Master Handbook
    of a beat, or 1/8th of a whole rest.
    EXAMPLE:
    {EighthRest.gif} EighthRest.gif
    Eighth Rest
    Unit Four
    Acoustics - Rest Names--6. Sixteenth Rest6. Sixteenth Rest
    A Sixteenth Rest looks like a number seven, also, but it has two "tops" and a dot on each "nose."
    It represents 1/4 of a beat, or 1/16th of a whole note.
    EXAMPLE:
    {SixteenthRest.gif} SixteenthRest.gif
    Sixteenth Rest
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take the UNIT 4 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso. When you have passed the UNIT 4 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 5.*It is time to take the UNIT 4 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso. When you have passed the UNIT 4 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 5.
    Unit FIVE - Identifying Voice Parts in a Music ScoreUnit FIVE - Identifying Voice Parts in a Music Score
    1. A "Music Score" is a piece of music used to sing or play music from.
    2. When a Choir has both men and women in the group, there are usually four basic kinds of voices:
    Soprano is a high woman's voice or a high unchanged young boy's voice.
    Alto is a low woman's voice, or a low unchanged boy's voice.
    Tenor is the high voice of a man whose voice has changed or is changing.
    Bass is the low voice of a man who voice is changed or is changing.
    3. Sopranos (S) - read the notes that are on the top line, which will be a treble staff.
    Altos (A) - read the notes on the second line, which will be a treble staff.
    Tenors (T) -read the notes on the third line, which will be a treble or bass staff. {If it is a treble staff, there will be a small
    "8" on the bottom of the treble clef, which indicates you are to sing it one octave (8 notes) lower than it is written.}
    Basses (B) - read the notes on the fourth line, which will be a bass staff.
    Here is an example. (It is in German!) Can you see the small "8" for the tenors?
    {http://g.sheetmusicplus.com/Look-Inside/large/571844_01.jpg} external image 571844_01.jpg
    4. Other times, the music is written on only two staves (staffs).
    Then, the Sopranos and Altos both read the notes on the Treble Staff.
    The Sopranos read the top notes (or the notes with stems going up).
    The Altos read the bottom notes, or the notes with stems going down.
    The Tenors and Basses read the notes on the Bass Clef.
    The Tenors read the top notes (or the notes with stems going up).
    The Basses read the bottom notes (or the notes with stems going down.)
    Here is an example of this kind of Choral writing:
    {http://www.traditionalmusic.co.uk/church-hymns/church-hymn%20-%200357-1.png} external image church-hymn%20-%200357-1.png
    5. If there is a piano part to be played, it will be written in below the voice parts.
    Here is an example of vocal music with the piano part written in below.
    {http://g.sheetmusicplus.com/Look-Inside/large/17315141_00-01.jpg} external image 17315141_00-01.jpg
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 5 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 5 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 5 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 6.*It is time to take your UNIT 5 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 5 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 5 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 6.
    Unit SIX - Bar Lines and MeasuresUnit SIX - Bar Lines and Measures
    Unit SIX - Bar Lines and Measures--1. What are a barline and a measure? (REVIEW)1. What are a barline and a measure? (REVIEW)
    answer: A barline is a single line used to divide music into equally-timed spaces.
    A measure is the space between two barlines.
    There is always a barline at the end of a line of music.
    At the end of the complete piece of music, there is a double barline
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://www.igdb.co.uk/pages/music-theory-lessons/images/bar-lines-measures.png} external image bar-lines-measures.png
    Without bar lines, it would be hard to find your way around in a piece music.
    You would have to say, sing the 15th note on Line #6," and you would have to count from left to right until you found it.
    EXAMPLE: (You do NOT have to draw the bar lines!)
    {http://www.sheetmusic1.com/rhythm.barlines/draw.bar.lines.3.gif} external image draw.bar.lines.3.gif
    Notes are easier to read when they are divided into groups.
    Now, you could say, "Play the 1st note in the
    5th measure of line #6," and you can find it much more quickly.
    Rests can be used in place of notes and they are counted as beats in the measures. They are silent beats.
    2. What is a Time Signature?
    answer: A Time Signature looks like a fraction. For example: 6/8
    The top number tells you how many beats there will be in each measure (6, in this case).
    The bottom number tells what kind of note will be counted as one beat (in 6/8, you will be counting 8th notes.)
    If you are in 4/4, there will be 4 beats in each measure and you will be counting quarter notes, because the bottom 4 represents a quarter note.
    Here is a chart showing other ways to count to 4 using different notes.
    A whole note is represented by "1," a half note by "2," a quarter note by "4" and an eighth note by an "8."
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:NGcc3n4f-GavwM:http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/63/2863-004-5F2A9814.gif} external image 2863-004-5F2A9814.gif
    3. 4/4 is the most common time signature you will find.
    In fact, it is sometimes shown by using the letter "C," instead of the usual 4/4.
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://www.ericweisstein.com/encyclopedias/music/cimg187.gif} external image cimg187.gif
    4. 2/4 time is half of 4/4; therefore it is sometimes called "Cut Time" and is shown with by a C with a line through it:
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Cut_time_signature.JPG} external image Cut_time_signature.JPG
    {http://www.cinderzelda.com/musictutor/mtpics/rhyth3.gif} external image rhyth3.gif
    5. Here are some measures, each with a different time signature and the correct number of notes in each one.
    NOTE: Remember that rests can also be used.
    A quarter rest can take the place of a quarter note, an eighth note can take the place of a eight note, and so on.
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://www.igdb.co.uk/pages/music-theory-lessons/images/time-signature.png} external image time-signature.png {time.png} time.png
    6. In this music, the time signature is different on each line.
    The red arrow tells where each beat is counted.
    Remember, the bottom number tells what kind of note is getting one beat.
    If there is a "1" on the bottom, then a whole note gets only 1 beat.
    A "2" on the bottom means that you are counting half notes.
    If the lower number is a "4," the quarter note will be worth one beat.
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/timesig7new.png} external image timesig7new.png
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 6 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 6 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 6 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 7.*It is time to take your UNIT 6 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 6 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 6 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 7.
    Unit SEVEN
    Edition - Dotted rhythmsUnit SEVEN - Dotted rhythms
    1. We can lengthen a note
    F. Alton Everest, Ken C. Pohlmann
    Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook
    by placing a dot after it. Like this:
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://rath.ca/HomeSchool/MusicGifs/DottedHalfNote.gif} external image DottedHalfNote.gif
    2. A dot after a note lengthens a note by half. Here is a chart that shows dotted notes.
    {http://img.quamut.com/chart/651/21_dotted_notes_rests.jpg} external image 21_dotted_notes_rests.jpg {dotted_notes_chart.GIF} dotted_notes_chart.GIF
    A whole note is usually worth 4 beats. A dot added to it makes it worth 6 beats (4 + 2).
    A half note is usually worth 2 beats. A dot added to it makes it worth 3 beats (2 + 1).
    A quarter note is usually worth 1 beat. A dot added to it makes it worth 1 1/2 beats (1 + 1/2).
    An eighth note is usually worth 1/2 a beat. A dot added to it makes it worth 3/4 of a beat (1/2 + 1/4).
    A sixteenth note is usually worth 1/4 a beat. A dot added to it makes it worth 3/8 of a beat (1/4 + 1/8).
    3. Rests can also be dotted.
    Apply the same rules to rests that you do to notes when a dot is added.
    See the same chart above to see what dotted rests look like.
    {file:///Users/terrigeluso/Library/Caches/TemporaryItems/moz-screenshot.jpg} moz-screenshot.jpg
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 7 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 7 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 7 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page
    Charles E. Reynolds and continue with Unit 8.*It is time to take your UNIT 7 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 7 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 7 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 8.
    Unit EIGHT- Counting RhythmsUnit EIGHT- Counting Rhythms
    1. REVIEW: In a Time Signature, the bottom number indicates what type of note receives one beat.
    The top number tells you how many beats there are in each measure.
    2. In all the examples below, one Quarter Note equals one beat, because there is a 4 on the bottom of the time signature.
    However, there are a different number of beats in each measure.
    In 4/4, there are 4 beats in each measure, and the Quarter Note gets one beat or one count.
    In 3/4, there are 3 beats in each measure, and the Quarter Note gets one beat or one count.
    In 2/4, there are 2 beats in each measure, and the Quarter Note gets one beat or one count.
    EXAMPLES:
    {time.png} time.png
    2. When writing numbers for counting longer notes, be sure to write the correct beats under each note.
    A half note or a half rest will get two numbers, because it is two beats long.
    A dotted half note or a dotted half rest will have three numbers, because it is three beats long.
    A whole note or a whole rest will get four numbers, because it is four beats long.
    EXAMPLES:
    {countingbeats.jpg} countingbeats.jpg
    3. Did you notice that some of the 8th notes and 8th rests have a plus sign under them?
    That is because they are LESS than one beat long.
    If the 8th note or 8th rest begins AT THE BEGINNING of a beat, it will have a number.
    If the 8th note or 8th rest begins AFTER the beat has begun, it will have a plus sign.
    The plus sign is called "and." The two eighth notes at the end of the first line are counted out loud as "one-and."
    The 2nd line has an 8th rest and then an eighth note. They are also counted as "one-and."
    4. If the 8th notes start on a different beat than 1, you would use that beat number.
    EXAMPLES:
    {countingbeats2.jpg} countingbeats2.jpg
    5. Be sure to start counting over again every time you come to a bar line.
    Each measure should have the number of beats indicated by the time signature.
    This example is in 4/4, although the time signature is not written in.
    {Countingbeats3.GIF} Countingbeats3.GIF
    6. Sixteenth Notes are counted with 4 syllables on each set of four.
    If a 16th note falls AT THE BEGINNING of a beat, that beat's number will be used.
    The next three 16th notes will be "ee-and-a". So counting four sets of 16th notes in one measure would be to say:
    1
    James C. Steedman (10th Edition)
    Yamaha
    - ee-and-a, 2 - ee - and - a, 3 - ee - and - a, 4 - ee - and - a.
    Keep a steady beat while you count. The numbers should stay the same distance of time part.
    EXAMPLE:
    {counting16thnotes.jpg} counting16thnotes.jpg
    If all of the notes you have learned so far were mixed together in a set of 4/4 measures, they moight look like this:
    {countingsixteenth-notes2.gif} countingsixteenth-notes2.gif
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 8 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 8 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 8 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 9.*It is time to take your UNIT 8 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 8 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 8 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 9.
    Unit NINE - The Piano KeyboardUnit NINE - The Piano Keyboard
    1. How many keys does a piano have?
    answer: A full piano keyboard has 88 keys on it.
    Many electric keyboards are smaller and have much less than 88 keys.
    2. Why are some keys black and some white?
    answer: To help you find the keys. The white keys are the Natural notes.
    The black keys are the Sharps and Flats.
    (On some pianos, the colors are reversed! The Naturals are black and the Sharps and Flats are white!)
    3. What is an easy way to memorize the names of the keys?
    answer: The keys are laid out in a pattern. Most of the black keys are laid out in groups of two and three.
    The first white key to the far left of the keyboard is an "A."
    If you say the musical alphabet (A, B, C, D, E, F, G), over and over as you go up the White kyes, you will name them over and over.
    The pattern of 2 & 3 black keys helps, because the white keys always fall in the same place.
    "D" is always between the set of TWO black keys.
    G and then A are always between the sets of THREE black keys.
    The rest of the notes can be placed in alphabetical order around a few you memorize.
    EXAMPLE: This keyboard starts on a "C" and is just over two musical alphabets long.
    {piano-keys.gif} piano-keys.gif
    4. Whenever you come to a black key, if it to the right of a white key, it is the sharp of that white key.
    If it is to the left of a white key, it is the flat of that white key.
    All black keys have two names, a flat name and a sharp name. (See the keyboard above.)
    Remember the rules:
    Lowered or FLAT keys are to the left of the natural note.
    Raised or SHARP keys are to the right of the natural note.
    (Lowered = Left; Raised = Right)
    5. A flat is shown by a squished up and pointed 'b'. {flatsign.svg.hi.png} flatsign.svg.hi.png
    A sharp is shown by a slanted tic-tac-toe sign. {sharpsign.gif} sharpsign.gif
    6. The "C" that is closest to the middle of the keyboard is called "Middle C".
    On the staff, Middle C is represented by the "invisible line" between (or in the middle) of the treble and bass staffs.
    Remember that it uses on a small piece of the invisible line, called a ledger line, to show its place.
    Here is a chart that shows how the natural notes on a piano keyboard line up with the grand staff.
    Not all the notes of the keyboard are shown, but you can probably figure them out.
    EXAMPLE:
    {notes-on-pianoand_grstaff.jpg} notes-on-pianoand_grstaff.jpg
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 9 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 9 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 9 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 10.*It is time to take your UNIT 9 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 9 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 9 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 10.
    Unit TEN - IntervalsUnit TEN - Intervals
    Unit TEN - Intervals--1. How do you know what note or pitch to sing when you look at a piece of music?1. How do you know what note or pitch to sing when you look at a piece of music?
    answer: Most singers need to use a piano to find the actual pitch of the song they are singing.
    But if you can find a comfortable beginning pitch, you can actually follow the notes and sing "by ear" the correct following pitches by being aware of how far apart the notes are on the staff.
    The distance between notes is called an "interval."
    2. There are 8 basic "intervals" between notes in music. These are:
    (Be sure and see the chart following these descriptions so you can SEE the intervals.)
    Unison (or Prime) - The two notes are exactly the same pitch, on the same line or space of the staff
    a 2nd - Counting the first note, the two notes are two steps apart.
    If one is on a space, the next is on the line above or below.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the space above or below.
    a 3rd - Counting the first note, the two notes are three steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the line above or below.
    f the first is a space note, the 2nd is the space note right above or below.
    a 4th - Counting the first note, the two notes are four steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 2nd space above or below.
    If the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 2nd line note right above or below.
    a 5th - Counting the first note, the two notes are five steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 2nd line above or below.
    f the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 2nd space note right above or below.
    a 6th - Counting the first note, the two notes are six steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 3rd space above or below.
    If the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 3rd line note right above or below.
    a 7th - Counting the first note, the two notes are seven steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 3rd line above or below.
    If the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 3rd space note right above or below.
    an Octave - Counting the first note, the notes have the same name, but are eight steps apart.
    If one is on a space, the 2nd will be on the 4th line above.
    If on a line, the 2nd is on the 4th space above.
    EXAMPLES OF INTERVALS:
    {simple-intervals.png} simple-intervals.png
    (Unison)
    3. Each interval has it's own unique sound. When trying these out, use only the white keys, use "C" as the prime note (or note #1), and you will create the following intervals.
    (Read and sing the song that is indicated.
    The words that are in bold are the words that have the interval the example is showing.)
    {arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png} arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png {arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png} arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png {arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png} arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png
    First and second note of the scale Major 2nd
    My coun - try ‘tis of thee… (America)
    1 1 2
    {keyboard-major2.JPG} keyboard-major2.JPG
    2nd: c to d
    _
    First and third note of the scale Major 3rd
    O - o say can you see… (Star Spangled Banner)
    1 3
    {keyboard-major3.JPG} keyboard-major3.JPG
    3rd: C to E
    First and fourth note of the scale Perfect 4th
    Here comes the bride...
    1 4 4 4
    {keyboard-P4.JPG} keyboard-P4.JPG
    4th: C to F
    First and fifth note of the scale Perfect 5th
    Twin - kle, twin - kle, little star…
    1 1 5 5
    {keyboard-P5.JPG} keyboard-P5.JPG
    5th: C to G
    First and sixth note of the scale Major 6th
    My Bon-nie lies over the ocean… (an old folk song)
    1 6
    {keyboard-major6.JPG} keyboard-major6.JPG
    6th: C to A
    _
    First and seventh note of the scale Major 7th
    Some-where O-ver the rainbow… (from the Wizard of Oz)
    1 (8) 7
    {keyboard-major7.JPG} keyboard-major7.JPG
    7th: C to B
    _
    First and eighth note of the scale Perfect 8th, Octave, Prime
    Some-where o-ver the rainbow… (from the Wizard of Oz)
    1 8 (7)
    {keyboard-octave.JPG} keyboard-octave.JPG
    Octave: C to C
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 10 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 10 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 10 QUIZ successfully, you are finished with the WIKI pages! Go out and celebrate!*It is time to take your UNIT 10 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 10 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 10 QUIZ successfully, you are finished with the WIKI pages! Go out and celebrate!
    {icecream.jpg} icecream.jpg
    Sound Reinforcement Handbook (2nd Edition)-Gary Davis-Ralph Jones
    (view changes)
    4:53 pm
  3. page home edited Reading Music the Wiki Way Unit One - Music Reading BasicsUnit One - Music Reading Basics Unit…

    Reading Music the Wiki Way
    Unit One - Music Reading BasicsUnit One - Music Reading Basics
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--1. What is a Staff?1. What is a Staff?
    answer: A staff is a series of 5 equally spaced horizontal lines on which music is written.
    EXAMPLE:
    {images.jpg} images.jpg
    Both the lines and the spaces between the lines are used to place notes.
    This is what the lines and spaces look like with notes on them.
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Bass_Clef_Notes_1.JPG} http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Bass_Clef_Notes_1.JPG
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Bass_Clef_Notes_1.JPG
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--2. What is the musical alphabet?2. What is the musical alphabet?
    answer: In music, the notes are named after the letters of the alphabet.
    However, there are 26 alphabet letters, and in music there are only seven different basic notes to which we refer; therefore, music only uses the first 7 letters of the alphabet:
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G.
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--3. What is the Treble Clef?3. What is the Treble Clef?
    answer: The Treble Clef is a musical symbol used to indicate where G above Middle C is located.
    The rest of the notes on the staff are laid out around that G. Sometimes the Treble Clef is called the "G Clef."
    EXAMPLES:
    {treble_clef_image.png} treble_clef_image.png
    {Fig_1-2_Treble_staff.jpg} Fig_1-2_Treble_staff.jpg
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--4. What is the Bass Clef?4. What is the Bass Clef?
    answer: The Bass Clef is a musical symbol used to indicate where F below Middle C is located.
    The rest of the notes on the staff are laid out around that F. Sometimes the Bass Clef is called the "F Clef."
    EXAMPLE:
    {Bass_Clef_image.png} Bass_Clef_image.png
    Can you imagine how this fancy Bass clef below is also a fancy F?
    That is how it originated. Musicians wanted to indicate where F was on the staff, so they used a fancy letter with the dots surrounding the F line.
    {http://farm1.static.flickr.com/64/194869462_0df5de735e.jpg?v=0} http://farm1.static.flickr.com/64/194869462_0df5de735e.jpg?v=0
    http://farm1.static.flickr.com/64/194869462_0df5de735e.jpg?v=0
    Unit One - Music Reading Basics--5. What are a barline and a measure?5. What are a barline and a measure?
    answer: A barline is a single line used to divide music into equally-timed spaces.
    A measure is the space between two barlines.
    There is always a barline at the end of a line of music.
    At the end of the complete piece of music, there is a double barline
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://www.igdb.co.uk/pages/music-theory-lessons/images/bar-lines-measures.png} external image bar-lines-measures.png
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your first test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 1 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 1 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 2.*It is time to take your first test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 1 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 1 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 2.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and SpacesUnit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--1. The Musical Alphabet (REVIEW):1. The Musical Alphabet (REVIEW):
    Each line and space on the staff is assigned a specific letter from the musical alphabet.
    The musical alphabet is easy to remember, because it is the first seven letters of the regular alphabet.
    The Musical Alphabet is: A B C D E F G
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--2. Treble Clef lines:2. Treble Clef lines:
    {egbdf1.jpg} egbdf1.jpg
    One way to remember the Treble Clef lines is to memorize a sentence.
    The line notes from bottom to top of the Treble Clef are: E G B D F
    The sentence can help you remember these line names. Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
    Other sentences may be used, too.
    Maybe you can come up with a sentence that will help you remember the lines of the Treble Clef.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--3. Treble Clef Spaces3. Treble Clef Spaces
    {face-1.jpg} face-1.jpg
    The spaces of the Treble Clef Staff are the letters in between the lines: (E) F (G) A (B) C (D) E (F)
    Listed alone, these note names are: F A C E
    They are easy to remember, because they spell a word: face
    Face also rhymes with "space" and that is where these notes are found, in the spaces.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--4. Bass Clef Lines:4. Bass Clef Lines:
    {bass_clef_LETTERS_lines.jpg} bass_clef_LETTERS_lines.jpg
    The line notes from bottom to top of the bass clef are: G B D F A.
    A sentence that will help you remember these notes is: Great Big Dogs Fight Alligators
    Again, other sentences may be used.
    Feel free to come up with one that will help you remember the lines of the Bass Clef.
    Unit Two - Names of Lines and Spaces--5. Bass Clef Spaces:5. Bass Clef Spaces:
    {bass_clef_SPACES_LETTERS.jpg} bass_clef_SPACES_LETTERS.jpg
    The spaces names are the letters between the line names: (G) A (B) C (D) E (F) G (A)
    Listed alone, these letter names are: A C E G
    A sentence that will help you remember the spaces of the Bass Clef Staff is: All Cows Eat Grass
    Again, other sentences may be used.
    Feel free to come up with one that will help you remember the spaces of the Bass Clef.
    6. When both the Treble and Bass Staves are put together, they form the Grand Staff.
    There are three notes between them: B, C, and D.
    The C between the staves is Middle C.
    Middle C is placed on an invisible line.
    Only a small piece of this line is shown. This small piece of line is called a ledger line.
    It is in the middle of the treble and bass staves and it is the C closest to the middle of the piano.
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://www.essential-music-theory.com/images/grand-staff-lines-with-middle-c.jpg} http://www.essential-music-theory.com/images/grand-staff-lines-with-middle-c.jpg
    http://www.essential-music-theory.com/images/grand-staff-lines-with-middle-c.jpg
    The note just above Middle C (in a space) is "D."
    The note just below Middle C (also in a space) is "B."
    EXAMPLE:
    {grandStaffwithnotenames.gif} grandStaffwithnotenames.gif
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 2 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 2 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 3.*It is time to take your test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 2 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 2 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 3.
    Unit Three - Note NamesUnit Three - Note Names
    Unit Three - Note Names--1. Overview of notes - What is a Rhythm Tree?1. Overview of notes - What is a Rhythm Tree?
    answer: A Rhythm Tree shows how different kinds of notes are related to each other.
    EXAMPLE:
    {notetree.jpg} notetree.jpg
    Of the notes above, the sixteenth notes last the shortest time, and take the most to fill up a measure of time.
    It takes two sixteenth notes to equal 1 eighth note.
    It takes two eighth notes to equal 1 quarter note.
    It takes two quarter notes to equal 1 half note.
    It takes two half notes to equal 1 whole note.
    One whole note usually fills up a whole measure by itself.
    Unit Three - Note Names--2. What is a Whole Note?2. What is a Whole Note?
    answer: A Whole Note is a musical symbol looking like an oval. It can be placed on a line or a space of the staff.
    It usually represents 4 beats, or all of the beats in a measure of time.
    EXAMPLE:
    {whole_note.jpg} whole_note.jpg
    Unit Three - Note Names--3. What is a Half Note?3. What is a Half Note?
    answer: A Half Note is a musical symbol looking like a oval with a stem attached.
    The stem can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    It can be placed on a line or in a space.
    It usually represents 2 beats, or half of the beats in a whole note.
    EXAMPLE:
    {0808-0801-1115-3534.jpg} 0808-0801-1115-3534.jpg
    Unit Three - Note Names--4.What is a Quarter note?4.What is a Quarter note?
    answer: A Quarter Note looks like a half note, but the note head has been filled in.
    The stem can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    It also can be placed on a line or in a space.
    A Quarter Note usually represents one beat, or one quarter of a Whole Note.
    EXAMPLE:
    {quarternote.gif} quarternote.gif
    Unit Three - Note Names--5. What is an Eighth Note?5. What is an Eighth Note?
    answer: An Eighth Note looks like a Quarter Note, but has a flag added to the end of the stem.
    When two or more Eighth Notes are used next to each other, the flags can be connected.
    The stems can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    Remember, when two Eighth Notes are connected with a beam, each note head represents one Eighth Note.
    An Eighth Note represents 1/2 a beat, or 1/8th of a whole note.
    EXAMPLES:
    One Eighth note (1/2 a beat): {0808-0710-3112-3855.jpg} 0808-0710-3112-3855.jpg Two Eighth Notes (each 1/2 a beat): {beam1.gif} beam1.gif
    Unit Three - Note Names--6. What is a Sixteenth Note?6. What is a Sixteenth Note?
    Answer: A Sixteenth Note looks like a Eighth Note, but has a double flag added to the end of the stem.
    When two or more Sixteenth Notes are used next to each other, the flags can be connected.
    The stems can point up (on the right of the note head) or point down (on the left of the note head.)
    Remember, when two Sixteenth Notes are connected with a beam, each note head represents one Sixteenth Note.
    Sixteenth Note represents 1/4 of a beat, or 1/16th of a whole note.
    EXAMPLES:
    Two single Sixteenth Notes (each is worth 1/4 of a beat):
    {Sixteenth-notes.jpg} Sixteenth-notes.jpg
    Two Sixteenth Notes, connected with a beam, (each note head is worth 1/4 of a beat):
    {beam2.gif} beam2.gif
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your next test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 3 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 3 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 4.*It is time to take your next test. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 3 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 3 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 4.
    Unit Four - Rest NamesUnit Four - Rest Names
    Unit Four - Rest Names--1. What is a Rest?1. What is a Rest?
    answer: A Rest is a symbol that represents silence in music.
    There is a rest to match each kind of note.
    Here is a chart that shows what each kind of rest looks like and lines each one up with it's matching note.
    {Srm0023.GIF} Srm0023.GIF
    Unit Four - Rest Names--2. Whole Rest2. Whole Rest
    A Whole rest looks like a small rectangle hanging from the bottom of the fourth line of the staff.
    One way to remember what its name is, is to imagine a stick man walking across the line the rest is hanging from.
    He would fall into the "hole" (whole) if he kept going.
    Also, the Whole Note represents the most beats of silence (4 beats), so perhaps it is "too heavy" to stay on top of the line, fell off, and is barely hanging on from beneath.
    EXAMPLE:
    {WholeRest.gif} WholeRest.gif
    3. Half Rest A Half Rest also looks like a small rectangle, but it is sitting on top of the third line of the staff.
    If a stick man were to walk across this line he would "half to" (have to) step over the rest.
    Perhaps this will help you remember that it is a "half-rest."
    Also, it only represents two beats of silence, so it is "lighter" than the Whole Rest, and therefore has no problem staying on top of its line.
    EXAMPLE:
    {HalfRest.gif} HalfRest.gif
    4. Quarter Rest The Quarter Rest represents 1 beat of silence.
    It may be hard to draw. An easy way to draw it is to draw a Z and then add a C below it.
    EXAMPLE:
    {QuarterRest.gif} QuarterRest.gif
    Unit Four - Rest Names--5. Eighth Rest5. Eighth Rest
    An Eighth Rest looks like a number seven (7) with a big dot on its "nose."
    It represents 1/2 of a beat, or 1/8th of a whole rest.
    EXAMPLE:
    {EighthRest.gif} EighthRest.gif
    Eighth Rest
    Unit Four - Rest Names--6. Sixteenth Rest6. Sixteenth Rest
    A Sixteenth Rest looks like a number seven, also, but it has two "tops" and a dot on each "nose."
    It represents 1/4 of a beat, or 1/16th of a whole note.
    EXAMPLE:
    {SixteenthRest.gif} SixteenthRest.gif
    Sixteenth Rest
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take the UNIT 4 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso. When you have passed the UNIT 4 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 5.*It is time to take the UNIT 4 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso. When you have passed the UNIT 4 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 5.
    Unit FIVE - Identifying Voice Parts in a Music ScoreUnit FIVE - Identifying Voice Parts in a Music Score
    1. A "Music Score" is a piece of music used to sing or play music from.
    2. When a Choir has both men and women in the group, there are usually four basic kinds of voices:
    Soprano is a high woman's voice or a high unchanged young boy's voice.
    Alto is a low woman's voice, or a low unchanged boy's voice.
    Tenor is the high voice of a man whose voice has changed or is changing.
    Bass is the low voice of a man who voice is changed or is changing.
    3. Sopranos (S) - read the notes that are on the top line, which will be a treble staff.
    Altos (A) - read the notes on the second line, which will be a treble staff.
    Tenors (T) -read the notes on the third line, which will be a treble or bass staff. {If it is a treble staff, there will be a small
    "8" on the bottom of the treble clef, which indicates you are to sing it one octave (8 notes) lower than it is written.}
    Basses (B) - read the notes on the fourth line, which will be a bass staff.
    Here is an example. (It is in German!) Can you see the small "8" for the tenors?
    {http://g.sheetmusicplus.com/Look-Inside/large/571844_01.jpg} external image 571844_01.jpg
    4. Other times, the music is written on only two staves (staffs).
    Then, the Sopranos and Altos both read the notes on the Treble Staff.
    The Sopranos read the top notes (or the notes with stems going up).
    The Altos read the bottom notes, or the notes with stems going down.
    The Tenors and Basses read the notes on the Bass Clef.
    The Tenors read the top notes (or the notes with stems going up).
    The Basses read the bottom notes (or the notes with stems going down.)
    Here is an example of this kind of Choral writing:
    {http://www.traditionalmusic.co.uk/church-hymns/church-hymn%20-%200357-1.png} external image church-hymn%20-%200357-1.png
    5. If there is a piano part to be played, it will be written in below the voice parts.
    Here is an example of vocal music with the piano part written in below.
    {http://g.sheetmusicplus.com/Look-Inside/large/17315141_00-01.jpg} external image 17315141_00-01.jpg
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 5 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 5 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 5 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 6.*It is time to take your UNIT 5 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 5 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 5 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 6.
    Unit SIX - Bar Lines and MeasuresUnit SIX - Bar Lines and Measures
    Unit SIX - Bar Lines and Measures--1. What are a barline and a measure? (REVIEW)1. What are a barline and a measure? (REVIEW)
    answer: A barline is a single line used to divide music into equally-timed spaces.
    A measure is the space between two barlines.
    There is always a barline at the end of a line of music.
    At the end of the complete piece of music, there is a double barline
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://www.igdb.co.uk/pages/music-theory-lessons/images/bar-lines-measures.png} external image bar-lines-measures.png
    Without bar lines, it would be hard to find your way around in a piece music.
    You would have to say, sing the 15th note on Line #6," and you would have to count from left to right until you found it.
    EXAMPLE: (You do NOT have to draw the bar lines!)
    {http://www.sheetmusic1.com/rhythm.barlines/draw.bar.lines.3.gif} external image draw.bar.lines.3.gif
    Notes are easier to read when they are divided into groups.
    Now, you could say, "Play the 1st note in the 5th measure of line #6," and you can find it much more quickly.
    Rests can be used in place of notes and they are counted as beats in the measures. They are silent beats.
    2. What is a Time Signature?
    answer: A Time Signature looks like a fraction. For example: 6/8
    The top number tells you how many beats there will be in each measure (6, in this case).
    The bottom number tells what kind of note will be counted as one beat (in 6/8, you will be counting 8th notes.)
    If you are in 4/4, there will be 4 beats in each measure and you will be counting quarter notes, because the bottom 4 represents a quarter note.
    Here is a chart showing other ways to count to 4 using different notes.
    A whole note is represented by "1," a half note by "2," a quarter note by "4" and an eighth note by an "8."
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:NGcc3n4f-GavwM:http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/63/2863-004-5F2A9814.gif} external image 2863-004-5F2A9814.gif
    3. 4/4 is the most common time signature you will find.
    In fact, it is sometimes shown by using the letter "C," instead of the usual 4/4.
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://www.ericweisstein.com/encyclopedias/music/cimg187.gif} external image cimg187.gif
    4. 2/4 time is half of 4/4; therefore it is sometimes called "Cut Time" and is shown with by a C with a line through it:
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Cut_time_signature.JPG} external image Cut_time_signature.JPG
    {http://www.cinderzelda.com/musictutor/mtpics/rhyth3.gif} external image rhyth3.gif
    5. Here are some measures, each with a different time signature and the correct number of notes in each one.
    NOTE: Remember that rests can also be used.
    A quarter rest can take the place of a quarter note, an eighth note can take the place of a eight note, and so on.
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://www.igdb.co.uk/pages/music-theory-lessons/images/time-signature.png} external image time-signature.png {time.png} time.png
    6. In this music, the time signature is different on each line.
    The red arrow tells where each beat is counted.
    Remember, the bottom number tells what kind of note is getting one beat.
    If there is a "1" on the bottom, then a whole note gets only 1 beat.
    A "2" on the bottom means that you are counting half notes.
    If the lower number is a "4," the quarter note will be worth one beat.
    EXAMPLES:
    {http://cnx.org/content/m10956/latest/timesig7new.png} external image timesig7new.png
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 6 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 6 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 6 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 7.*It is time to take your UNIT 6 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 6 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 6 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 7.
    Unit SEVEN - Dotted rhythmsUnit SEVEN - Dotted rhythms
    1. We can lengthen a note by placing a dot after it. Like this:
    EXAMPLE:
    {http://rath.ca/HomeSchool/MusicGifs/DottedHalfNote.gif} external image DottedHalfNote.gif
    2. A dot after a note lengthens a note by half. Here is a chart that shows dotted notes.
    {http://img.quamut.com/chart/651/21_dotted_notes_rests.jpg} external image 21_dotted_notes_rests.jpg {dotted_notes_chart.GIF} dotted_notes_chart.GIF
    A whole note is usually worth 4 beats. A dot added to it makes it worth 6 beats (4 + 2).
    A half note is usually worth 2 beats. A dot added to it makes it worth 3 beats (2 + 1).
    A quarter note is usually worth 1 beat. A dot added to it makes it worth 1 1/2 beats (1 + 1/2).
    An eighth note is usually worth 1/2 a beat. A dot added to it makes it worth 3/4 of a beat (1/2 + 1/4).
    A sixteenth note is usually worth 1/4 a beat. A dot added to it makes it worth 3/8 of a beat (1/4 + 1/8).
    3. Rests can also be dotted.
    Apply the same rules to rests that you do to notes when a dot is added.
    See the same chart above to see what dotted rests look like.
    {file:///Users/terrigeluso/Library/Caches/TemporaryItems/moz-screenshot.jpg} moz-screenshot.jpg
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 7 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 7 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 7 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 8.*It is time to take your UNIT 7 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 7 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 7 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 8.
    Unit EIGHT- Counting RhythmsUnit EIGHT- Counting Rhythms
    1. REVIEW: In a Time Signature, the bottom number indicates what type of note receives one beat.
    The top number tells you how many beats there are in each measure.
    2. In all the examples below, one Quarter Note equals one beat, because there is a 4 on the bottom of the time signature.
    However, there are a different number of beats in each measure.
    In 4/4, there are 4 beats in each measure, and the Quarter Note gets one beat or one count.
    In 3/4, there are 3 beats in each measure, and the Quarter Note gets one beat or one count.
    In 2/4, there are 2 beats in each measure, and the Quarter Note gets one beat or one count.
    EXAMPLES:
    {time.png} time.png
    2. When writing numbers for counting longer notes, be sure to write the correct beats under each note.
    A half note or a half rest will get two numbers, because it is two beats long.
    A dotted half note or a dotted half rest will have three numbers, because it is three beats long.
    A whole note or a whole rest will get four numbers, because it is four beats long.
    EXAMPLES:
    {countingbeats.jpg} countingbeats.jpg
    3. Did you notice that some of the 8th notes and 8th rests have a plus sign under them?
    That is because they are LESS than one beat long.
    If the 8th note or 8th rest begins AT THE BEGINNING of a beat, it will have a number.
    If the 8th note or 8th rest begins AFTER the beat has begun, it will have a plus sign.
    The plus sign is called "and." The two eighth notes at the end of the first line are counted out loud as "one-and."
    The 2nd line has an 8th rest and then an eighth note. They are also counted as "one-and."
    4. If the 8th notes start on a different beat than 1, you would use that beat number.
    EXAMPLES:
    {countingbeats2.jpg} countingbeats2.jpg
    5. Be sure to start counting over again every time you come to a bar line.
    Each measure should have the number of beats indicated by the time signature.
    This example is in 4/4, although the time signature is not written in.
    {Countingbeats3.GIF} Countingbeats3.GIF
    6. Sixteenth Notes are counted with 4 syllables on each set of four.
    If a 16th note falls AT THE BEGINNING of a beat, that beat's number will be used.
    The next three 16th notes will be "ee-and-a". So counting four sets of 16th notes in one measure would be to say:
    1 - ee-and-a, 2 - ee - and - a, 3 - ee - and - a, 4 - ee - and - a.
    Keep a steady beat while you count. The numbers should stay the same distance of time part.
    EXAMPLE:
    {counting16thnotes.jpg} counting16thnotes.jpg
    If all of the notes you have learned so far were mixed together in a set of 4/4 measures, they moight look like this:
    {countingsixteenth-notes2.gif} countingsixteenth-notes2.gif
    STOPSTOP
    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 8 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 8 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 8 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 9.*It is time to take your UNIT 8 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 8 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 8 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 9.
    Unit NINE - The Piano KeyboardUnit NINE - The Piano Keyboard
    1. How many keys does a piano have?
    answer: A full piano keyboard has 88 keys on it.
    Many electric keyboards are smaller and have much less than 88 keys.
    2. Why are some keys black and some white?
    answer: To help you find the keys. The white keys are the Natural notes.
    The black keys are the Sharps and Flats.
    (On some pianos, the colors are reversed! The Naturals are black and the Sharps and Flats are white!)
    3. What is an easy way to memorize the names of the keys?
    answer: The keys are laid out in a pattern. Most of the black keys are laid out in groups of two and three.
    The first white key to the far left of the keyboard is an "A."
    If you say the musical alphabet (A, B, C, D, E, F, G), over and over as you go up the White kyes, you will name them over and over.
    The pattern of 2 & 3 black keys helps, because the white keys always fall in the same place.
    "D" is always between the set of TWO black keys.
    G and then A are always between the sets of THREE black keys.
    The rest of the notes can be placed in alphabetical order around a few you memorize.
    EXAMPLE: This keyboard starts on a "C" and is just over two musical alphabets long.
    {piano-keys.gif} piano-keys.gif
    4. Whenever you come to a black key, if it to the right of a white key, it is the sharp of that white key.
    If it is to the left of a white key, it is the flat of that white key.
    All black keys have two names, a flat name and a sharp name. (See the keyboard above.)
    Remember the rules:
    Lowered or FLAT keys are to the left of the natural note.
    Raised or SHARP keys are to the right of the natural note.
    (Lowered = Left; Raised = Right)
    5. A flat is shown by a squished up and pointed 'b'. {flatsign.svg.hi.png} flatsign.svg.hi.png
    A sharp is shown by a slanted tic-tac-toe sign. {sharpsign.gif} sharpsign.gif
    6. The "C" that is closest to the middle of the keyboard is called "Middle C".
    On the staff, Middle C is represented by the "invisible line" between (or in the middle) of the treble and bass staffs.
    Remember that it uses on a small piece of the invisible line, called a ledger line, to show its place.
    Here is a chart that shows how the natural notes on a piano keyboard line up with the grand staff.
    Not all the notes of the keyboard are shown, but you can probably figure them out.
    EXAMPLE:
    {notes-on-pianoand_grstaff.jpg} notes-on-pianoand_grstaff.jpg
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    STOP-*It is time to take your UNIT 9 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 9 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 9 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 10.*It is time to take your UNIT 9 QUIZ. See Mrs. Geluso for the UNIT 9 QUIZ. When you have passed the UNIT 9 QUIZ successfully, you may return to this page and continue with Unit 10.
    Unit TEN - IntervalsUnit TEN - Intervals
    Unit TEN - Intervals--1. How do you know what note or pitch to sing when you look at a piece of music?1. How do you know what note or pitch to sing when you look at a piece of music?
    answer: Most singers need to use a piano to find the actual pitch of the song they are singing.
    But if you can find a comfortable beginning pitch, you can actually follow the notes and sing "by ear" the correct following pitches by being aware of how far apart the notes are on the staff.
    The distance between notes is called an "interval."
    2. There are 8 basic "intervals" between notes in music. These are:
    (Be sure and see the chart following these descriptions so you can SEE the intervals.)
    Unison (or Prime) - The two notes are exactly the same pitch, on the same line or space of the staff
    a 2nd - Counting the first note, the two notes are two steps apart.
    If one is on a space, the next is on the line above or below.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the space above or below.
    a 3rd - Counting the first note, the two notes are three steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the line above or below.
    f the first is a space note, the 2nd is the space note right above or below.
    a 4th - Counting the first note, the two notes are four steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 2nd space above or below.
    If the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 2nd line note right above or below.
    a 5th - Counting the first note, the two notes are five steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 2nd line above or below.
    f the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 2nd space note right above or below.
    a 6th - Counting the first note, the two notes are six steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 3rd space above or below.
    If the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 3rd line note right above or below.
    a 7th - Counting the first note, the two notes are seven steps apart.
    If the first is on a line, the 2nd is on the 3rd line above or below.
    If the first is a space note, the 2nd is the 3rd space note right above or below.
    an Octave - Counting the first note, the notes have the same name, but are eight steps apart.
    If one is on a space, the 2nd will be on the 4th line above.
    If on a line, the 2nd is on the 4th space above.
    EXAMPLES OF INTERVALS:
    {simple-intervals.png} simple-intervals.png
    (Unison)
    3. Each interval has it's own unique sound. When trying these out, use only the white keys, use "C" as the prime note (or note #1), and you will create the following intervals.
    (Read and sing the song that is indicated.
    The words that are in bold are the words that have the interval the example is showing.)
    {arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png} arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png {arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png} arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png {arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png} arrowpointingdown.svg.med.png
    First and second note of the scale Major 2nd
    My coun - try ‘tis of thee… (America)
    1 1 2
    {keyboard-major2.JPG} keyboard-major2.JPG
    2nd: c to d
    _
    First and third note of the scale Major 3rd
    O - o say can you see… (Star Spangled Banner)
    1 3
    {keyboard-major3.JPG} keyboard-major3.JPG
    3rd: C to E
    First and fourth note of the scale Perfect 4th
    Here comes the bride...
    1 4 4 4
    {keyboard-P4.JPG} keyboard-P4.JPG
    4th: C to F
    First and fifth note of the scale Perfect 5th
    Twin - kle, twin - kle, little star…
    1 1 5 5
    {keyboard-P5.JPG} keyboard-P5.JPG
    5th: C to G
    First and sixth note of the scale Major 6th
    My Bon-nie lies over the ocean… (an old folk song)
    1 6
    {keyboard-major6.JPG} keyboard-major6.JPG
    6th: C to A
    _
    First and seventh note of the scale Major 7th
    Some-where O-ver the rainbow… (from the Wizard of Oz)
    1 (8) 7
    {keyboard-major7.JPG} keyboard-major7.JPG
    7th: C to B
    _
    First and eighth note of the scale Perfect 8th, Octave, Prime
    Some-where o-ver the rainbow… (from the Wizard of Oz)
    1 8 (7)
    {keyboard-octave.JPG} keyboard-octave.JPG
    Octave: C to C
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